Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Haroon Rashid, Ch. Arslan, Shahbaz Nasir Khan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Due to water scarcity issues in developing countries, wastewater irrigation has become a viable common practice in majority of the agricultural areas of Pakistan. It has been widely claimed that the use of wastewater for irrigation purpose not only helps in addressing the issues of water scarcity but fulfills the nutritional requirements for the cultivation as well. But the municipal wastewater in urban and peri urban areas of Punjab are carrying excessive pollution loads of untreated industrial wastewater, which is becoming a source of subsurface contamination as well as health hazard, due to carriage of toxic chemicals and heavy metals through the drains, being released from the industries. Industrial areas have equally been spread out all over the province of Punjab, thus the issue of irrigation by using untreated wastewater exists in all the regions of the Punjab. This research work reviews the findings of impact of different significant parameters on soil and groundwater and the uptake of these parameters by the plants and vegetations, along with assessing the health risk of these contaminants on humans after consumption. Based on the review, frame work for the application of municipal wastewater for irrigation purpose in the peri urban areas of Punjab has also been recommended. .
wastewater irrigation, health risk assessment, subsurface contamination, industrial pollutants, heavy metals.