SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY ANALYSIS OF PM2.5 CONCENTRATION IN LAHORE CITY

Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Sana Basheer, Haroon Rashid, Abdul Nasir, Rana Ali Nawaz

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi:10.26480/ecr.01.2019.06.10

ABSTRACT
In order to understand the air quality of Lahore city we analyzed the PM2.5 concentration at three sampling station Gulberg, Ravi road and Jail road from November 2017 to October 2018. Variations in concentration of PM2.5 was observed on monthly basis and also on seasonal basis. Air quality data was collected and then analyzed with the help of GIS. Concentration of PM2.5 varies 23 to 70 µg/m3 at Gulberg station. At Jail road station values were observed between 34 and 170 µg/m3 while Ravi road had concentration level of PM2.5 between 70 and 188 µg/m3. Highest concentration was observed at Ravi road while lowest concentration was observed at Gulberg sampling station. GIS maps tells us about the spatial variations of PM2.5 in the study area. Then compare the observation with NEQS, NAAQS-USEPA and WHO standards. Results shows that PM2.5 concentration was above the standards at Ravi road and Jail road stations while Gulberg had also concentration level above the standards but concentration level was below the NEQS AND NAAQS-USEPA standards during March 2018 and August 2018. Reasons of high concentration level may include industrial emissions, vehicular emissions and crop residue burning. Metrological factors also effects air quality. High level of PM2.5 concentration is an alarming situation for air quality and have direct impact on the human health as well as on other environmental factors.

KEYWORDS
PM2.5 concentration, GIS, NEQS, NAAQS-USEPA, Metrological, environmental