Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Sofia Khalid, Khanoranga, Uroosa Altaf, Rahim Shah, Ghazala Parveen
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Access to safe drinking water is an emerging issue in Pakistan, both in urban and rural settlements. The water quality in the region is mainly declined by population explosion, vehicular and industrial emissions and agricultural activities. The aim of the study was to assess the water quality of the study area through integrated approach of water quality index and multivariate analysis. Water samples from the study area were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters using standard methods. The study site was divided into eight (8) different locations and the water samples were collected from commonly used water sources. The results of study indicated that the concentration of all studied chemical parameters were within the permissible limits when compared with WHO recommended standards except lead (Pb). Major cations were found in the order of Ca2+> Mg2+>Na+ whereas the trend of anions was HCO-3>Cl->SO4>NO3.Overall water was estimated to be of CaHCO-3 type. Water quality index illustrated that all water samples were unsuitable for drinking purposes. Microbiological assessment showed that water is contaminated with coliform bacteria and fungal spores. Multivariate techniques were found to be ideal tools in identifying spatial variability through cluster analysis (CA) and reducing the dimensionality of huge data set through PCA/FA. It is briefly, concluded from the results of current study, that water of the study area was unsuitable for drinking purposes due to presence of some biological and chemical contaminants. Results recommend that developing efficient water quality monitoring programs, promoting ceramic filters technology, and raising awareness about the issue in communities are the most important steps that might help the people of the study area to resolve the problem.
Sanitation, Water quality index, Cluster analysis, Multivariate techniques, Mortality