Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Warda Khalid, Misbah Fida, Wakeel Hussain, Abdur Rashid, Hamad Ur Rehman
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
This paper reviews the concentration and distribution of fluoride in Indian groundwater with particular emphasis and similarities between different components. Groundwater is an essential and precious source of water for drinking. Fluoride is frequently found naturally in the groundwater. Through human activities, organic pollutants enter the groundwater are also a significant concern that can not be avoided. The data for this review paper was obtained from nineteen locations from 2007 to 2018. The data revealed that fluoride concentration ranged from 0.26 to 5.636 mg/L, with 37% of sites with a higher fluoride concentration level. Excessive fluoride ingestion contributes to fluorosis of the dentures and skeletons and bone deformities. It is observed that eight sites were found with higher concentrations (>180 mg/L) of hard water minerals out of nineteen sites. The correlation between the elements itself shows a strong positive correlation, which is r= +1 but the correlation of F-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, Fe, Mn, PO43-, CO32- between each other is either strong, medium, or small positive and negative or shows no linear relationship between each other. It was noted that the level of health risk in the district of Dhandband and the state of Telangana was calculated to have a higher risk with greater probability and consequences.
Groundwater fluoride, Health effects, India, Pearson correlation, Risk level