Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Sundas Shafique, Shakira Mukhtar, Ume Hani, Shazia Iram

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


Bioaerosols in indoor environment include substantial portion of fungi which are considered as “hidden killers”. Pakistan like other countries, also bears the atrocities of fungi and their mycotoxins and suffers more due to its favourable climate, weak economy and unawareness. Genus Aspergillus of Fungi is quite important and is predominant in indoor environment, along with Penicillium. There are not adequate research studies on the indoor micro-floral composition, however, the available data shows that numerous Aspergillus species are found inside the buildings whether they be houses, hospitals, laboratories, cafeteria or slaughterhouses. The mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus species include aflatoxins, fumonisins, citrinin, ochratoxins and cyclopiazonic acid. They are mainly carcinogenic and cause various diseases like aflatoxicosis, pentaketide nephrotoxin, and necrosis. To avoid such issues, fungal growth should be avoided by controlling temperature and humidity. In addition, fungicides, ultraviolet radiation or essential oils can be used against fungi. The condition of the buildings can also be adjusted to minimize fungal growth like building material, ventilation system, wall paint and hygiene. The database of the country is not satisfactory with insignificant laws and regulation. To estimate the potential risks of Aspergillus species and their mycotoxins, regular monitoring is required at all levels. It will also help to devise solutions related to health and environment related problems.

Aspergillus, mycotoxin, health, indoor, Pakistan