Journal: Environmental Contaminants Reviews (ECR)
Author: Aman Kumar Gupta, Dipak Yadav

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating aquatic weed and native of Amazon River. Water hyacinth is one of the fastest growing plants they primarily reproduce from runners or stolons. Each plant of E. crassipes can produce thousands of seeds each year and these seeds can remain viable for more than 28 years. Water hyacinth caused water loss through evapotranspiration which is more significant than indigenous weeds. Water hyacinth caused many problems in canals, ponds, lakes, rivers likes they are blocking of canals and causing floods, reduction of water quality, oxygen depletion, increased evapotranspiration rate, fish production problems, the beauty of ponds and effects on human health. Controlling methods of water hyacinth includes physical, chemical and biological but the biological method is effective and environment friendly. Neochetina bruchi, N. eichhorniae, and water hyacinth borer (Sameodes albiguttalis) are found effective biological control on water hyacinth. These weevils are feed on water hyacinth and reducing the size of water hyacinth, its vegetative propagation, and seed production. Semi-aquatic grasshopper Cornops aquaticum is also found effective control on water hyacinth.

Water hyacinth, Characteristics, Physical, Chemical and Biological control.